Monday, July 13, 2015

5 the most Iconic Castles

  • 1078
    William the Conqueror begins the construction of the Tower of London on the north bank of the River Thames to fortify key position and overawe the city by the new ruling elite
  • 1406
    Malbork Castle, the largest castle in the world by surface area, is completed by the Teutonic Knights in Marienburg, the administrative center of the Order in Prussia
  • 1452
    Ottoman Sultan Mehmet II begins construction of a new fortress called Rumeli Hisar on the Constantinople side of the Bosporus in order to control the sea traffic on the Bosphorus strait
  • 1609
    Himeji Castle, a hilltop Japanese castle located in Himeji, Japan is completely rebuilt into a large castle complex by Japanese daimyo Ikeda Terumasa
  • 1882
    Neuschwanstein Castle, a Romanesque Revival palace in southwest Bavaria, Germany, is completed by Ludwig II of Bavaria


  • 1865
    Gregor Mendel, Austrian botanist, formulates his laws of inheritance after exploration of the inheritance of certain traits in pea plants, thus founding the science of genetics
  • February 28, 1953
    Cambridge University scientists James Watson and Francis Crick announce that they have determined the double-helix structure of DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid, the molecule containing human genes
  • April 25, 1953
    Francis Crick and James D. Watson publish an article describing the double helix structure of DNA
  • 1956
    Soviet Russian biologists Alexander Spirin and Andrey Belozersky predict existence of messenger RNA, a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome
  • 1965
    Werner Arber, a Swiss microbiologist and geneticist, discovers restriction endonucleases, an enzyme that cuts DNA, thus laying foundation for recombinant DNA technology
  • 1973
    American geneticists Stanley Norman Cohen and Herbert Boyer transfer the gene for frog ribosomal RNA into bacterial cells, thus starting genetic engineering
  • September 10, 1984
    Alec Jeffreys, a British geneticist, develops techniques for DNA fingerprinting and DNA profiling
  • 1990
    Four-year-old Ashanthi DeSilva, who suffers from severe combined immunodeficiency, becomes the first patient to undergo successful gene therapy
  • May 18, 1994
    Food and Drug Administration concludes that Flavr Savr, a genetically modified tomato, is safe for food use, making it the first commercially grown genetically engineered food
  • April 14, 2003
    The Human Genome Project, an international scientific research project, is successfully completed, with 99 percent of the human genome sequenced to 99.99 percent accuracy
  • May 7, 2010
    Scientists conducting the Neanderthal genome project announce that they have sequenced enough of the Neanderthal genome to suggest that Neanderthals and humans may have interbred

Friday, July 3, 2015

Cuban Missile Crisis

  • October 22, 1962
    In a televised speech, US President John F. Kennedy announces that U.S. spy planes have discovered Soviet missile bases in Cuba which would house medium-range missiles capable of striking a number of major cities in the US, marking start of Cuban Missile Crisis
  • October 23, 1962
    US navy ships begin a blockade of Cuba, to prevent Soviet ships from bringing in supplies to complete building missile bases
  • October 27, 1962
    Soviet Union leader Nikita Khrushchev publicly calls for the dismantling of U.S. missile bases in Turkey, which was accepted by US President Kennedy at a later date
  • October 28, 1962
    Nikita Khrushchev announces his government's intent to dismantle and remove all offensive Soviet weapons in Cuba
  • August 30, 1963
    Hot Line communications link between Washington DC and Moscow begins in the wake of the Cuban Missile Crisis

Thursday, July 2, 2015

Teutonic Knights

  • March 5, 1198
    The Teutonic Knights, religious Catholic order, are established as a military order in a ceremony at Acre in Palestine
  • 1226, March
    The Golden Bull of Rimini, issued by Emperor Frederick II, authorizes the Teutonic Knights to conquer and convert pagan Prussian tribes in the Baltic
  • December 28, 1233
    Kulm law, a charter granted settlers civic freedoms, is issued by the Teutonic Knights as a part of their efforts to colonize Prussia
  • April 5, 1242
    At the Battle on the Ice the Republic of Novgorod under 20-year-old Prince Alexander Nevsky defeat the Livonian branch of the Teutonic Knights halting the Northern Crusades directed against pagans and Eastern Orthodox Christians
  • February 7, 1249
    Treaty of Christburg forces the pagan Prussian clans to recognize the rule of the Teutonic Knights, establishing German as the dominant culture and language
  • 1255
    Königsberg is founded on the site of the ancient Old Prussian settlement Twangste by the Bohemian King Otakar II, who came to help Teutonic Knights during their conquest of Prussia
  • July 13, 1260
    Lithuanians defeat the joint forces of the Teutonic Knights from Prussia and Livonian Order from Livonia at the Battle of Durbe during the Livonian Crusade
  • June 1, 1298
    The people of Riga with help of Grand Duke of Lithuania Vytenis defeat the order in the Battle of Turaida
  • 1341
    The Livonian Order buy the Duchy of Estonia from King Valdemar IV of Denmark
  • February 17, 1370
    Teutonic Knights beat forces of Grand Duchy of Lithuania at Battle of Rudau
  • 1406
    Malbork Castle, the largest castle in the world by surface area, is completed by the Teutonic Knights in Marienburg, the administrative center of the Order in Prussia
  • July 15, 1410
    Lithuanian-Polish forces defeat the Teutonic Knights at the Battle of Grunwald in Prussia, thereby halting the Knights' eastward expansion along the Baltic and hastening their decline
  • 1466
    Second Peace of Thorn ends the Thirteen Years' War, a conflict between the Prussian Confederation, allied with the Kingdom of Poland, and the State of the Teutonic Order, with win of Prussian Confederation
  • April 10, 1525
    Albert von Brandenburg, a member of a branch of the House of Hohenzollern and the leader of the Teutonic Order, secularizes Order's remaining territories into the Duchy of Prussia and passes the first laws of the Protestant church, making Prussia a Protestant state
  • 1809
    Napoleon strips the Teutonic Knights of their last holdings in Bad Mergentheim in Germany